Over 20 recent and historical works by Claude and François-Xavier Lalanne on view at Paul Kasmin Gallery – New York – 16.03.2017-22.04.2017 – 11513

François-Xavier Lalanne, Hippopotame II (bar), 2007 Edition of 1976. Bronze, stainless steel, copper, and wood, 41 3/8 x 78 3/4 x 16 1/2 inches, 105 x 200 x 42 cm. Edition EA 1 of 4.

Paul Kasmin Gallery presents Les Lalanne, featuring over 20 recent and historical works from the pioneering French sculptors, Claude and François-Xavier Lalanne. The exhibition is on view March 16 to April 22, 2017 at 293 Tenth Avenue.

Since 1956 the husband and wife team, known as Les Lalanne, has forged a course singularly their own with an oeuvre that is inventive, poetic, and surreal. While each has a distinct practice, their sculptures often take on hybrid forms with novel functions inserting the natural world into intimate spaces. Prefacing their first joint exhibition in 1964, American sculptor James Metcalf declared the work of Les Lalanne “as individual and unique as every one of us”.

One such sculpture is François-Xavier’s Hippopotame II (bar), 1976. Cast in bronze, the animal’s jaws and belly open to reveal hidden compartments for its intended purpose of a fully functioning bar. Moutons de Laines (Troupeau de 3), 1974, among his best known and beloved figures, were first introduced in 1965 at the Salon de la Jeune Peinture in Paris. Made of wool and bronze on casters, the sheep double as benches, while playfully suggesting a flock of three sheep, at once bringing joie de vivre and breaking up the monotony of daily life.

Claude, known for seamlessly fusing natural elements from her garden, intertwines branches, leaves, and crocodile skins to create furniture such as gingko benches, croco bureaus and bamboo tables. The iconic Gingko sculpture embodies a surrealist impulse to play with seemingly implausible forms and contexts. In Banc Gingko, 2011, Claude enlarges the tree’s unique fan-shaped leaves to a fantastical size. Rendered in gilt bronze, they entwine with branches to form the back, seat and legs of the bench, while preserving the harmonious asymmetry of its organic form.

Les Lalanne will also feature Yves Saint Laurent’s 1993 commission of Miroir. Standing at 9.5 feet tall, it is the largest, single mirror Claude has ever made. This work along with three new mirrors are a continuation of mirrors that once lined the walls of Yves Saint Laurent and Pierre Bergé’s Rue Bonaparte library.

Claude Lalanne (b. 1924 in Paris) studied architecture at the École des Beaux-Arts before meeting her husband and collaborator François-Xavier Lalanne (b. 1927 in Agen, died 2008 in Ury, France). Claude and François-Xavier developed careers and their idiosyncratic aesthetics in tandem creating a body of work that defied both genre and artistic trends of the era.

In 2010, Les Lalanne were the subject of a major retrospective at Paris’s Musée des Arts Décoratifs, curated by the architect Peter Marino, as well as a public exhibition held at the Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden in Coral Gables, Florida. Their work was shown on the Park Avenue malls as part of New York City Parks Public Art Program and in the sale of the collection of Yves Saint Laurent. Les Lalanne’s work is part of major collections internationally, including the Cooper Hewitt Museum in New York, the Musée Nationale d’Art Moderne/Centre Georges Pompidou, the Musée d’Histoire Naturelle in Paris, the City of Paris, the City of Santa Monica, and the City of Jerusalem.

Website : Paul Kasmin Gallery
Source : Artdaily

Vito Schnabel Gallery presents an exhibition of new work by Sterling Ruby – St. Moritz – 12.03.2017-16.04.2017 – 11512

Installation view, Sterling Ruby, MIX PIZ, Vito Schnabel Gallery, St. Moritz, 2017. © Sterling Ruby; Courtesy Sterling Ruby Studio and Vito Schnabel Gallery. Photo by Stefan Altenburger.

Vito Schnabel Gallery is presenting MIX PIZ, an exhibition of new work by Sterling Ruby. The title brings together two aspects of the show: “mix,” representing the mixture of mediums Ruby assembled for the space— bronze, mobile, collage, painting, and ceramic—and “Piz,” which means “peak” in Romansh, one of the official languages of Switzerland spoken in the Engadin region. “Piz” is a common prefix to the names of many Swiss mountains in the area.

Friedrich Nietzsche first developed his idea of the eternal return while on long meandering hikes in the Engadin. While installing his STOVES exhibition last year in St. Moritz, Ruby began reflecting on the intellectual history and the landscape of this region, and it became a catalyst in the creation of his own idyllic vernacular and symbolism. A free association connects hiking in the region to the motions of the planets to the eternal recurrence, across distinct bodies of work in a wide range of materials – from collage to ceramics.

The large bronze Modern Hiker and the jagged stalagmites that line the edges of the DRFTRS collages echo the Engadin’s mountain peaks. MOONRISE/MOONSET, with its silvery nitrate patina, is comprised of two circular moonlike shapes, stacked one on top of the other. The bright yellow round ceramics suggest the sun. A visceral red painting conjures to mind a blood moon. Its title, HALF TETRAD, refers to the astronomical phenomenon of a tetrad– a set of four total lunar eclipses within two years which have been associated with prophecies of the apocalypse.

This exhibition is the second solo show of Ruby’s work presented by Vito Schnabel Gallery. The first, STOVES, was an installation of two of Ruby’s large-scale functioning wood-burning stoves, each measuring 14 to 17 feet in height, set in a garden across from the gallery at the Kulm Hotel from December 2015 – March 2016. Ruby’s work was also recently included in the group exhibition at Vito Schnabel Gallery curated by Bob Colacello, titled The Age of Ambiguity: Abstract Figuration / Figurative Abstraction.

Sterling Ruby is known for his use of a wide range of aesthetic and material strategies, from sculptures made of saturated, glossy, poured polyurethane, bronze and steel, to drawings, collages, richly glazed ceramics, spray-paint paintings, photography and video, as well as textile works that include quilts, tapestries and large stuffed soft sculptures.

Ruby has exhibited at institutions including the Ullens Center for Contemporary Art, Beijing; Museum of Modern Art, New York; Drawing Center, New York; Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago; Walker Art Center, Minneapolis; Institute of Contemporary Art, Philadelphia; Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles; Musée de la Chasse et de la Nature, Paris, France; FRAC Champagne-Ardenne, Reims, France, Centre d’Art Contemporain, Geneva, Switzerland; and Bonniers Konsthall, Stockholm, Sweden and Museo d’Arte Contemporanea, Rome, Italy; Garage Centre for Contemporary Culture, Moscow and MACRO, Rome. In 2014, Ruby exhibited at the Taipei Biennial, the Gwangju Biennial, and the Whitney Biennial. His work was included in the biennial MADE IN L.A. 2016 at the Hammer Museum, Los Angeles, and he was the subject of a solo exhibition at the Winterpalais, Belvedere Museum, Vienna, Austria in 2016. The Geffen Contemporary at MOCA will present the recently acquired SOFT WORK installation in April 2017.

Website : Vito Schnabel Gallery
Source : Artdaily

Van Doren Waxter presents exhibition of paintings from crucial figure of late-era American abstraction – New York – 22.02.2017-28.04.2017 – 11511

Harvey Quaytman, Vital Attractions, 1990. Acrylic and crushed glass on canvas, 60 x 60 inches. (152.4 x 152.4 cm) Signed, titled, dated on reverse.

Van Doren Waxter presents Harvey Quaytman: Hone, an exhibition of paintings from this crucial figure of late-era American abstraction. Opening February 22, 2017 and remaining on view through April 28, 2017, Harvey Quaytman: Hone marks the gallery’s first exhibition of Quaytman’s work since representation of the artist’s estate in 2016. A fully illustrated catalogue will accompany this exhibition with an essay by Steven Henry Madoff.Harvey Quaytman came of age in the 70s and 80s when the art world was focused on Neo-Expressionism, Minimalism, Conceptualism and the Pictures Generation. Counter to these movements, Quaytman’s work developed in response to Abstract Expressionism in an attempt to develop a more personal approach to abstraction. Harvey Quaytman: Hone features nine paintings made between 1982 and 1990, a period in which the artist favored paintings with a palette of white, black, blues, yellows, vermillion, and rust which, at times, were incorporated with crushed glass. Predicating his use of color on the basis of attraction, Quaytman noted, “I have no specific meanings, but a color must mean something to me before I use it. I must love that color and it must strike me.”

Harvey Quaytman (1937-2002) is best known for his large scale, hard-edged modernist paintings. Originally steeped in the vernacular of 60s American abstraction reminiscent of Arshile Gorky and Willem de Kooning, Quaytman found his distinctive style of abstraction in the 70s by creating unconventionally shaped paintings dominated by one or two colors. Harvey Quaytman: Hone features work from the 80s when the artist began a new chapter working within a rectangular format distinguished by bold, assertive colors. A rich palette dominates his paintings of this period, often with a cruciform as the central compositional anchor, a form that he later isolated evoking painting as object.

One of the earliest works in the show is Untitled (1983), a rectangular painting characterized by a black window on a white ground. The window hovers toward the outer border of the picture with a curved edge at the lower corner—a line that replicated his pendulum shaped works from the mid-70s. Here, the curve is incorporated within the window, taking what was outside and bringing it in. From 1985–1988, Quaytman experimented with form and perspective as the window is covered by the cruciform.

The act of looking is paramount to understand Quaytman’s choices of composition, medium and color. Close inspection reveals the richness of surface and nuanced color which brings a sensuous quality to hard edge shapes. Though an admirer of artists such as Malevich and Mondrian, Quaytman was moved more by the spirit of optimism in Suprematist painting than its physical properties.

Harvey Quaytman: Hone is the first exhibition of Quaytman’s work since 2014 and the closing of the McKee Gallery, who had been the artist’s dealer for 41 years. A retrospective planned for 2018 at The Berkeley Museum and Pacific Film Archive will be organized by Apsara DiQuinzio, BAMPFA Curator of Modern and Contemporary Art and Phyllis C. Wattis, MATRIX Curator.

‘What I Loved: Selected Works from the ’90s’ at Regen Projects – Los Angeles – 04.03.2017-13.04.2017 – 11510


Installation view of What I Loved: Selected Works from the ‘90s at Regen Projects. Photo: Jeff McClane, Courtesy Regen Projects, Los Angeles.

Regen Projects is presenting a group exhibition entitled What I Loved: Selected Works from the ‘90s.The 1990s marked a pivotal moment in American history and contemporary art. It was a time of economic recession, the first Gulf War, the Los Angeles riots, 24-hour news, the advent of the Internet and the dot-com bubble, and the fall of Communism. Regen Projects, which opened in 1989, developed alongside and in response to these events and established a roster of artists whose work expressed the zeitgeist of the times. What I Loved takes its name from Siri Hustvedt’s 2003 novel, which looks back at the constellation of relationships and events in the New York art world circa 1975 to 2000 through the eyes of an art historian and critic. Similarly, this exhibition revisits these formative years and brings together a group of artists who came of age during this time, and whose work became part of the critical discourse for addressing issues of race, gender, sexuality, identity politics, globalization, and the AIDS crisis, among others.

Artists featured in the exhibition include Matthew Barney, Philip-Lorca diCorcia, Felix Gonzalez-Torres, Rachel Harrison, Mike Kelley, Toba Khedoori, Karen Kilimnik, Byron Kim, Liz Larner, Glenn Ligon, Robert Mapplethorpe, Marilyn Minter, Catherine Opie, Raymond Pettibon, Elizabeth Peyton, Jack Pierson, Lari Pittman, Richard Prince, Cindy Sherman, Gary Simmons, Wolfgang Tillmans, Kara Walker, Gillian Wearing, Lawrence Weiner, Sue Williams, and Andrea Zittel.

Rare sculptures by Alberto Giacometti and Richard Serra on display for the first time – London – 10.02.2017-22.04.2017 – 11509



Monochrome installation view, Photography by Mike Bruce

Monochrome, an exploration of the use of a single colour – white – focusing on sculptures by a number of significant 20th century artists, will open at Ordovas, London, from 10 February until 22 April 2017. Presenting works rendered in various tones of white by Eduardo Chillida, Alberto Giacometti, Barbara Hepworth, Isamu Noguchi and Richard Serra, the exhibition will explore the depth and diversity that is found in the use of white, a colour that is long associated with purity and clarity. The exhibition will include Alberto Giacometti’s Femme, considered to be a pivotal link between British and European modernism in the 1930s, which will go on public display for the first time since it was made almost 80 years ago.Alberto Giacometti (1901-1966) made Femme in 1928-29. One of Giacometti’s most simplified female figures – flat and almost abstract – Femme is a negative relief that hovers between two and three dimensions, and evokes the sculptor’s fascination with African and Oceanic art. With its pure white form, pared down to the bare essentials, Femme is known to have been a key influence for a generation of British sculptors including Henry Moore, Barbara Hepworth and Ben Nicholson. Despite plaster works being an extremely important part of Giacometti’s oeuvre, many early plaster pieces have been lost, either due to lack of space in the studio he shared with his brother Diego, or because they were damaged during the casting process; the majority of his surviving plasters are now housed in the collection of the Fondation Alberto et Annette Giacometti. The plasters demonstrate very direct contact with the hand of the artist, and many celebrated bronzes originate from hand-shaped forms made of plaster. Bearing traces of interventions after the plaster had hardened, many of Giacometti’s plaster works show evidence of scrapings, scratches, indentations and even places where the plaster has been gouged out with a penknife. This further working makes each plaster unique, and a number of them were not used to make casts for bronzes but were presented as sculptures in their own right, including Femme.

Maquette for Large Sculpture: Three forms (Two circles), a serravezza marble sculpture made by Barbara Hepworth (1903-1975) in 1966, recalls the purity and seeming simplicity of works she made in the 1930s. It is one of a group of four sculptures that Hepworth made in 1966 in which the smooth porcelain surfaces of white marble became a medium for spatial abstraction.

Each sculpture is small in size and each is composed of circular holes carved from rectangular planks of marble compositions of overlapping forms. The 1960s was an exceptionally successful period for Hepworth, who by this time was widely acknowledged as the world’s greatest female sculptor. Yet despite the widespread success and public recognition during these later years, Hepworth faced a private struggle when she was diagnosed with cancer in 1965. The topic of death pervades Hepworth’s work in the ensuing years and was a strong factor in the monumental size of sculptures that she produced in her late career. Maquette for Large Sculpture: Three forms (Two circles) embodies all of the ideological elements and notions of form and scale imperative to Hepworth’s art. It is being publicly displayed in London for the first time since 1972.

Executed one year later, in 1967, Rosa Esman’s Piece, a vulcanized rubber sculpture by Richard Serra (b. 1939) is also included in Monochrome. It is a rare piece that Serra made contemporaneously with his work on the ‘Belts’, executed in 1966-67. In the mid-1960s Serra began experimenting with nontraditional materials including fibreglass, neon, vulcanized rubber (a process of treating in a zinc chloride solution to make the rubber more durable), and, later, lead. He combined his examination of these materials and their properties with an interest in the physical process of making sculpture. The result was a list of action verbs—”to roll, to crease, to curve”—that Serra compiled, listed on paper, and then enacted with the materials he had collected in his studio. Serra was very interested in the materiality and the substance of rubber; his first studio in New York was next door to a warehouse containing many pieces of discarded rubber that he collected and experimented with. He was intrigued by the material’s weight and spatiality and the fact that it was malleable and able to be manipulated like heavy and dense clay. Other major rubber works include To Lift (collection of the artist) and Belts (Guggenheim, New York). Serra has described ‘Belts’ as a response to Jackson Pollock’s Mural (1943-44), and the work asks us to imagine the painted line in three dimensions. Each drooping strand of rubber is a drawing made over into a bodily, industrial shape, its once pristine surface smudged with layers of dirt and grease.

Becoming, executed by Isamu Noguchi (1904-1988) in 1966-67, is one of the last marble sculptures the artist ever made, marking the cusp of his transition to harder, less fragile sculpting materials. It was completed a year before his first retrospective in the United States, at the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York. Noguchi did not belong to any particular movement, but collaborated with artists working in a range of disciplines and schools. However, no one had a more significant impact on Noguchi’s oeuvre than Constantin Brancusi, for whom he worked as a studio assistant in Paris during the 1920s. Brancusi taught Noguchi how to use carving tools and honour his materials, and greatly inspired the younger artist with his elongated and reductive forms. Having worked with marble in his early career, Noguchi later shifted to harder stones, including granite, which offered more resistance to his overriding desire to continually work and reshape the stone. However, granite did not show the variation in surface texture that Noguchi sought; before moving to Japanese basalt stone, he returned briefly to work with white marble, a material that he understood and had great respect for. It was during this period that he carved Becoming.

Eduardo Chillida (1924-2002) executed Gurutz VIII in alabaster in 2000. A pioneer of modernist sculpture, who produced an extraordinary body of work over 50 years, Chillida is hailed as one of the most important 20th century sculptors. He made his first work in alabaster in 1962 following a trip to Greece. Here he was inspired by architecture and light, and saw alabaster as a material for constructing space – enabling him to show the flow between interior and exterior and the communication between light and the material. Gurutz, meaning ‘Cross’ in Basque, was one of approximately 50 alabaster works that Chillida created, and he continued working with this transformative material until his death in 2002. As with Chillida’s monumental corten steel sculptures, his intimate works rendered from blocks of alabaster reflect his unique process and distinct use of line and space

New series of oil on canvas works by Los Angeles based artist Christian Vincent on view at C24 Gallery – New York – 02.03.2017-26.04.2016 – 11508



Christian Vincent, Web, 2016. Oil on canvas, 74 x 90in. (188 x 228.6cm).

C24 Gallery is presenting Through the Frame, a new series of oil on canvas works by Los Angeles based artist Christian Vincent. Through the Frame is on view March 2 – April 26, 2017.In this brand new collection of dreamlike paintings, Christian Vincent explores and illuminates social behavior, conformity and isolation in the post-industrial world. Vincent’s distinctive use of perspective and color coupled with the device of defining and framing space with doorways, windows, and mirrors draw focus to the public and personal conflicts and complications of contemporary life.

The independent fictions Vincent portrays in Through the Frame explore existence and nature, and the relationships between the artist’s anonymous characters and the landscapes they inhabit. Within each scene is a metaphorically charged scenario, a miniature drama, which Vincent has become so famous for creating. Vincent’s poetic perspectives on the social and psychological behaviors that are fundamental to the American experience, cast the viewer in the twin roles of observer and voyeur, leaving them to question the nature of desire and individuality. Humanist themes present questions that resonate within all of us.

Vincent’s visual vocabulary sharpens the post-industrial American complex, and directs our attention to his concerns without relying on shock or cynicism. In Blind Spot, we see a large group, dressed exactly the same and painting the same image. The scene is taken off canvas and we are left to question how large the room and the group actually is. Are they learning to paint in the same style, or is it intentional mass production? Patterns in nature that mimic familiar human shapes are seen through multiple tableaus: Ocean waves mimic the faces of hurried people (Untitled, and Dissolve), and wallpaper evokes the ebb and flow of liquid currents, or crowds (Reflex). Within these patterns, we recognize something familiar. Vincent’s deft brush isolates us from others who linger just beyond the frames, creating both a sense of disconnection and a longing for fulfillment.

Art In America’s Gerrit Henry wrote: “The artist Vincent most closely resembles is not a painter at all, but…novelist Sinclair Lewis. Like Lewis, with his knowing savaging of all things American, Vincent is at bottom a social commentator…[his] deep and perplexed love of his country is worked out in a melodrama of purely native characters and situations.”

Christian Vincent, born in 1966, lives and works in Los Angeles, California. He studied at the Art Center College of Design in Pasadena and his work has been exhibited extensively in the United States, including at the Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art Kansas City, MO; Naples Art Museum, Naples, FL; Susquehanna Art Museum, Harrisburg, PA; Frye Art Museum, Seattle, WA; and Arnot Art Museum, Elmira, NY. Vincent’s work is included in several prominent private collections internationally.

Through the Frame is Christian Vincent’s first solo exhibition at C24 Gallery.

Almine Rech Gallery in Paris opens exhibition of works by Bertrand Lavier – Paris – 04.03.2017-15.04.2017 – 11507



Bertrand Lavier, Paysages aixois, 2015. Acrylic on traffic sign, 140 x 240 cm – 55 1/8 x 94 1/2 inches © Bertrand Lavier. Courtesy of the Artist and Almine Rech Gallery. Photo: Hervé Hote.

Ad Reinhardt, who knew his stuff, once gave this both wicked and hilarious definition of sculpture: “something you bump into when you back up to look at a painting.” Since the beginning of his career over 40 years ago, Bertrand Lavier has always avoided this unfortunate dilemma by making light of the academic opposition between these two fine arts. For instance, his painted objects from the 1980s debunked one of the most classical assumptions about sculpture embodying what painting represses.For his new exhibition in Paris, the artist goes on playfully tackling this question of painting and sculpture with one additional twist: A cappella, the title of the show, serving him as a method. Indeed, Bertrand Lavier enjoys spinning the musical metaphor, actually describing his practice as a stridence, which consists in “turning up the acoustic or visual volume to a level that could be compared to the phenomenon of incandescence.” That said, no instrumental accompaniment was needed here, hence the artist’s three monochromes that welcome us into the exhibition: Bleu cobalt (2017), Jaune cadmium clair (2017) and Vert permanent (2017). These three works further a series of monochromes, which was initiated in 1986. They are photographs of previously colored surfaces, over which the artist repainted identically, that is, the most illusionistically possible, the initial compositions. If Bertrand Lavier originally meant to highlight in this series the difference between painting and photography, the didactic dimension has since disappeared. Even though it remains visible, the distinction has now become subtler and requires more attention from the viewer. The brushwork over the photographed monochromes isn’t that of Van Gogh, which the artist qualifies as “modern,” yet it evokes the more “contemporary” touch of abstract expressionism, a spontaneous and popular equivalent of which Bertrand Lavier found on the display windows sprinkled with whiting of rue Louise Weiss or avenue Montaigne in Paris. This blurring effect takes on another form in the landscapes Paysages aixois (2015) and Sombernon (2016), which were made on found tourist signs. The artist mimetically covered them with acrylic paint and this time, impressionism oblige, a hint of Van Gogh’s stroke. What we end up seeing are both a painted tourist sign and a landscape painting. Whereas such signs are primarily designed to point at a landscape unfolding beyond them, Bertrand Lavier’s process of repainting over (and after) them forces us to reconsider the object before our eyes as a landscape that has been cut out of its context. Thus these touristic means, which are intended to index typical places or monuments, gain the status of paintings. Through this operation, Bertrand Lavier uncovers the true etymological sense of the picturesque, that is, what is worthy of being painted.

Reversed logics: similarly and exhilaratingly so, Bertrand Lavier’s Walt Disney Productions, an ongoing series of paintings and sculptures made after pictures from Walt Disney comic books, shows us how his referential images have as much to do with the history of modern art as they have with that of cartoons.

When in 1984 Bertrand Lavier hauled a fridge up onto a safe, he put into critical perspective the dialectic initiated by Rodin and Brancusi between the pedestal and the statue, all the while grafting them (a notion that the artist retained from his studies in horticulture).

In Colonne Ford (2017), the artist clinched a Ford sedan’s taillight into an old stone column, which literally and spectacularly expresses this grafting operation by offering an unprecedented visual situation based on elements that have already demonstrated – although in a different context and in a different way – their efficiency.

Finally, La Vénus d’Amiens (2016) is reminiscent of Nautiraid (2002), although it inverses the latter’s logics. Whereas Nautiraid gave a slightly futuristic twist to the practice of archaeology with the restoration of a contemporary object, a damaged kayak, La Vénus d’Amiens defies the laws of History in an even more untimely way. The referential object is over 23,000 years old. It consists of 19 fragments of limestone, which were found as a shapeless pile on the site of Renancourt in 2014, and which – once assembled – almost integrally reconstituted a 15-centimeter-high Venus from the Paleolithic era. Using the most contemporary tools of 3D modeling, Bertrand Lavier has transformed this statuette and its exaggerated sexual attributes into a near 2-meter-high sculpture. In doing so, he has displaced it from its archaeological context to grant it instead an eminently sculptural status within the great tradition of academic statuary. This academic dimension is further highlighted by the use of plaster. Plaster casts have been used in Europe since the 18th century as means allowing the students to access the “originals” of antique or classical sculptures without having to leave the academies or travel anywhere. Bertrand Lavier could have transposed this Venus into a nobler material (such as marble or bronze) or a more contemporary one (such as resin or nickel bronze), but he chose a material, which belongs – classically speaking – to the realm of the copy or reproduction. Reversing the usual order of precedence is a way for the artist to make this statuette from the Cro-Magnon era enter the global history of sculpture, as well as to short-circuit the temporalities of History and Art. A cappella, that is, without useless sophistication, with the humblest material there is.

Benrubi Gallery presents second solo exhibition of work by Eric Cahan – New York – 02.032017-15.04.2017 – 11506



Bring Me Flowers, 2016.

Benrubi Gallery is presenting Rabbits, Rats & Cats, the gallery’s second solo exhibition by Eric Cahan, after 2013’s Sky Series.Cahan visited Havana, Cuba and its nearby villages three times in 2016, spending significant time in El Barrio del Fanguito, where he was witness to Cuba’s social immobility and poverty, as well as to a lifestyle more in harmony with nature and the basic needs of its citizens than that of much of the West.

While in Cuba, Cahan took part in two Ayahuasca ceremonies, which opened his heart and mind to new ways of seeing, and gave him a sense of connection to the people around him, and to their own connection to their land. Rabbits, Rats, and Cats was born out of these experiences. It integrates Cahan’s artistic practices, presenting photography, painting, and a film documenting his alternative vision of Cuban life, where inhabitants are portrayed as hybrid animal-human forms and anthropomorphic extensions of their surroundings.

Using his photographs as a blueprint, Cahan enhanced each image through an alchemic treatment that tessellates the photographic surface, some of which is layered in oil paint, while other sections are reduced to phthalo shimmers, before the picture is finished with a crackle varnish that resembles the scaling in the initial strata. Cahan’s manipulations unmasks the supposed objectivity of the photographic process as the subjective perspective it is, while the arbitrary and often surreal details of the painted imagery acquire a documentary inevitability in conjunction with its photographic base.

Cahan’s painted images hearken back to 19th-century color photography, whose painstakingly hand- tinted prints seem to modern eyes uncanny in their meticulous detail. However, the stripping and accreting process of Cahan’s modern approach echoes the Ayahuasca experience of peeling back layers of existence to reconfigure one’s perspective. Cahan’s subjects retain their every-day identity and remain in their quotidian reality, but now possess an added or revealed aura of vivid psychological, cultural, and spiritual significance. The tension between the subjects’ gritty, impoverished setting and the vibrant colors and hallucinogenic imagery results in images that are at once documentary and fantastic, sober and liberating, and filled with compassion and connection for both the seen and unseen worlds.

Accompanying the paintings is a nonlinear film constructed from fragments of Cahan’s documentation and the resulting paintings, all of which give physical form to the artist’s psychedelic- evoked reality. Inspired by details in the paintings, a collection of generic suicide notes, as well as the psychological images they evoke, Cahan’s narrative voice-over acts as a guide to the film, which chronicles the death of the artist’s ego and his awakening into a new plane of coexistence. Like the photographs, the film gives form to otherwise non-corporeal mental states, while simultaneously challenging our assumptions about what we really see when we look at the world.

Eric Cahan was born and raised in Manhattan. He studied at The University of Southern California and New York University, where he graduated from The Tisch School of the Arts’ Film Program. He currently resides in Brooklyn, New York.

Petzel Gallery presents exhibition of new paintings and drawings by Sarah Morris – New York – 23.02.2017-08.04.2017 -11505


Sarah Morris, Um Al Nar, 2017. Household gloss paint on canvas, 84.25 x 84.25 inches, 214 x 214 cm. Courtesy of the artist and Petzel, New York.

Petzel Gallery presents an exhibition of new paintings and drawings by Sarah Morris.The complex language of abstraction, imbued in the paintings of Sarah Morris continues in Finite and Infinite Games, as Morris extracts the codes, systems of control, power structures that characterize urban, social and bureaucratic typologies. The title of the exhibition references James P. Carse’s book on the sociopolitical implications of game play in everyday life, while the body of work is parallel to two films Morris has made: Abu Dhabi shot on location in the United Arab Emirates, and Finite and Infinite Games, a film featuring Alexander Kluge and the Elbphilharmonie, Hamburg.

Architectural, political, and historical examinations of cities through reduced and expanded abstraction have been the mark of Morris’s paintings, in which she focused on revealing the multilayered identities and narratives of cities such as Rio, New York, Washington DC and Beijing. For this new series of paintings, Morris turns her focus to the futuristic landscape of the Middle East. Geographical coordinates, schematically mapped, create the framework for her compositions. Morris’s unique use of vivid color and grid-like geometric shapes produce a virtual architecture of city and desert—landscape and erasure.

Morris’s paintings explore the complex conversation between culture, architecture and power. The work streamlines a way of perception as much as abstracted urban structures. Executed in household gloss paint on square canvases, Morris’s Abu Dhabi paintings, redolent with algorithmic grids, capture the quiddity of the moment. Morris’s paintings and drawings continually develop the artist’s exploration into the essence of place and politics, creating visions of play, possibility and intrigue both finite and infinite. Within this framework, the Olympics, Chase Bank, conspiracies, QR codes, the film industry, the global banking system, Sir Norman Foster, J.G. Ballard, the oil industry, The President of the United States, lunar cycles, pharmaceutical packaging, falconry and even fruit are fair game.

Sarah Morris (b. 1967, American) lives and works in New York. She has exhibited internationally including solo exhibitions at the Kunsthalle Wien, Vienna (2016), M Museum Leuven (2015), Kunsthalle Bremen (2013), Wexner Center for the Arts, Columbus (2012), K20 Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Dusseldorf (2010), Museum für Moderne Kunst, Frankfurt (2009), Museo d’Arte Moderna di Bologna (2009), Lenbachaus, Munich (2008), Fondation Beyeler, Basel (2008), Museum Boijmans van Beuningen, Rotterdam (2006), Kestner Gesellschaft, Hannover (2005), Palais de Tokyo, Paris (2005), Moderna Museet, Stockholm (2005), Kunstforeningen, Copenhagen (2004), The Nationalgalerie in Hamburger Bahnhof, Berlin (2001), Kunsthalle Zürich (2000), Museum of Modern Art, Oxford (1999).

Work by the artist is held in museum collections worldwide, including: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York; Lenbachhaus, Munich; Museum of Modern Art, New York; Museum für Moderne Kunst, Frankfurt; Neue Nationalgalerie im Hamburger Bahnhof, Berlin; Centre Pompidou, Paris; SFMoMA, San Francisco; Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam; and Tate Modern, London.

The film Finite and Infinite Games is currently showing at the Hamburg Deichterhallen and her site-specific work “Monarch”, a passenger train that operates between Montreux and Zweisimmen, Switzerland can be seen until 2021.

Solo exhibition of new work by Juergen Teller on view at Blum & Poe – Tokyo – 04.02.2017-01.04.2017 – 11504



Blum & Poe is presenting a solo exhibition of new work by Juergen Teller, curated by Francesco Bonami. This is the artist’s first solo presentation in Japan in twenty-five years.

Teller first made his mark on the public’s consciousness when his iconic pictures of Kurt Cobain were published in Details magazine in 1991. Thereafter, his first solo exhibition took place in Japan at Shibuya PARCO, Tokyo, in 1992, where he showed portraits and early fashion photographs. The following year he was the recipient of the 1993 Photography Prize at Festival de la Mode, Monaco. Since then Teller has collaborated with the world’s leading fashion designers including Marc Jacobs, Vivienne Westwood, Comme des Garçons, and Helmut Lang. The candid and casual nature of his work appears random yet it is based on precise planning and staging. This tension is evident in the bizarre scenario created for this exhibition, which debuts a new series of photographs depicting frogs on plates. As Francesco Bonami envisages it:

“‘Once upon a time in a suburban neighborhood of an irrelevant country, people did not eat frogs but kissed them and made love with them’ — this could be the beginning of a fairy tale written by Juergen Teller while imagining this exhibition where frogs turn into a small crowd of viewers looking at the three main characters of the exhibition: the gentleman with the gorilla, the lady with the fox, and the man with the donkey. Teller’s gift is not just to tell, with images, a simple story but in fact is the ability to turn extraordinary people — charismatic and curmudgeonly photographer William Eggleston, ethereal and myth-like actress Charlotte Rampling, and his own barbarian self — into normal people on the verge of a magical breakdown. The exhibition is built as a conversation and an encounter between the community of frogs and these three people with their own counterparts in the animal world.”

Juergen Teller was born in 1964 in Erlangen, Germany. He studied at the Bayerische Staatslehranstalt für Photographie in Munich, and has lived and worked in London since 1986. His work has been exhibited extensively around the world: his solo exhibition Enjoy Your Life!, which was held at the Kunsthalle Bonn in 2016, is currently on view at Galerie Rudolfinum, Prague until March 19, and will travel to Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, from April 20 to July 3, 2017. Recent solo exhibitions include The Clinic, Contemporary Fine Arts, Berlin (2015); Macho, DESTE Foundation, Athens (2014); Woo! Institute of Contemporary Art, London (2013); Touch Me, Le Consortium, Dijon (2010), which traveled to Daelim Museum, Korea (2011); and Man with Banana, Dallas Contemporary, Texas (2011). Francesco Bonami has worked with Teller since 2012, when he organized Teller’s first solo exhibition in Italy, The Girl With the Broken Nose, at the Palazzo Reale in Milan. In 2014, Teller held a two-artist show with the legendary Japanese photographer, Nobuyoshi Araki: Araki Teller Teller Araki, at the Ostlicht, Vienna. He was also one of five artists to represent Ukraine in the 52nd Venice Biennale in 2007. Teller’s work is represented in numerous public collections including the Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris; Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain, Paris; International Center for Photography, New York; National Portrait Gallery, London; Pinchuk Art Centre, Kiev; and the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.


Exhibition presents rare coloured sculptures that represent radical moments in Tony Cragg’s practice – London – 01.03.2017-13.04.2017 – 11503


Tony Cragg, Red Square, 2007. Bronze, 76 x 80 x 66. Photo: Ellen Page Wilson.

Holtermann Fine Art and Dutko Gallery presenting ‘Tony Cragg: Primary Colours’, an exhibition of rare coloured sculptures by Tony Cragg. The exhibition showcases a carefully curated ensemble of secondary market works that represent two radical moments in Cragg’s practice: his early plastic works and his first coloured bronze forms. Over several decades, Holtermann Fine Art has actively supported Tony Cragg and his market, especially through the organisation of major museum exhibitions. This collaboration with Dutko Gallery, planned over the past two years, is based on a long-standing friendship and represents for each art dealer an opportunity to highlight their shared interests. ‘Primary Colours’ coincides with a major retrospective of Tony Cragg’s work at Yorkshire Sculpture Park (4 March, 2017 – 3 September 2017). Holtermann Fine Art is a supporter of this show.The striking blue, yellow and red hues of the three bronze sculptures in ‘Primary Colours’ testify to the artist’s bold approach to colour in sculpture and demonstrate his unrivalled skill in using it. These works from his important Early Forms series are among the first in which Cragg adds the new element of colour to cast bronze. Applying colours to bronze, rather than traditional patinas, is a complex technological feat that the artist achieved through borrowing techniques from the German car industry, which Cragg, who is based in Germany and intensely interested in science, adapted for his own artistic ends.

A further highlight in the show is ‘Looking at Sculpture’ (1980), a seminal plastic wall piece that Cragg considers one of the finest from the period. A representation of the artist himself looking at ‘The Rape of the Sabine Women’, a 16th-century sculpture by Giambologna, the work attests to Cragg’s early use of colour. ‘Looking at Sculpture’ is assembled from bright plastic fragments collected along the banks of the Rhine. Inspired by Arte Povera, Cragg transformed this found detritus into a large, collage-like composition to be hung on a wall. For Cragg, man-made objects and materials are vital ingredients and underlying his practice is the idea that the utilitarian design of everyday objects restricts the potential inherent in any material. By using plastic objects to create new artistic forms, Cragg makes us look again at this mundane, ubiquitous and disposable material as it is appropriated into a dynamic and playful art-work.

One of the most prominent British contemporary sculptors, Tony Cragg (b.1949) began working in the early 1970s and was one of the early proponents of Land Art. His interest in science and natural history, as well as his early experience working in a scientific laboratory, gave birth to an artistic practice that constantly questions the boundaries of materials and forms and expands the visual language of contemporary sculpture.

Cragg’s practice involves working in series. The bronze sculptures presented in this exhibition are part of Cragg’s renowned and longest-running series of cast bronzes entitled Early Forms and versions of these were exhibited as a group in Cragg’s recent retrospective at the Von der Heydt Museum in Wuppertal, Germany, 2016. Started in the late 1980s, this body of work develops out of the forms of vessels, from chemical containers or ancient flasks to jam jars, test-tubes and detergent bottles. As Cragg points out, ‘Works from the Early Forms group are always to do with vessels transforming and mutating into one another in space.’

Cragg’s ongoing interest in vessels emerges both from their formal qualities and their historical and metaphorical significance. As illustrated by the title Early Forms, vessels are among the earliest forms of man-made objects. In addition to the civilizing effect the invention of containers has had on human existence, vessels and flasks were key in Cragg’s early laboratory experience. As in the magical play with materials in alchemy Cragg’s practice explores the metamorphosis of forms.

Over the years, the shapes of the Early Forms sculptures have evolved from the simple melding of one vessel into another, to more complex, elastic formations in which the original object is completely transformed, an evolution that is particularly striking in the three bronze sculptures presented in this exhibition. In McCormack (2007), the blue vessel’s playful form is like three-dimensional calligraphy. In the yellow-painted bronze Declination (2003), a title deriving from an astronomical term related to the sun, all that remains is the seam that links one form to the other. The voluptuous Red Square (2007) was conceived at the time of Cragg’s exhibition at the Central House of Artists in Moscow in 2005. The slit that runs along the edges of the sculptures gives a glimpse into the internal space and each work’s inner structure. Cragg speaks of his enduring interest in the inner life of things, matter and human thought and emotions and invites the viewer to consider the same.

As curator Patrick Elliott wrote in his catalogue essay for Cragg’s exhibition at the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art in Edinburgh (2011): the Early Forms sculptures explore both the metamorphosis of form and the space around it:

…they are about the gap between things. In the drive towards economy and mass production, industry has created a limited range of formatted goods, and ignored all those forms which do not serve the purpose of economy or functionality. Cragg addresses the vast terrain of potential forms that lie between these formatted goods. If, at first glance, Cragg’s work over the years seems to have shifted in style and approach, it is in fact united and grounded in this philosophical starting point.

Exhibition of assemblages and collages by Louise Nevelson at Cortesi Gallery – Lugano – 16.02.2017-07.04.2017 – 11502



Louise Nevelson, Untitled, 1980 ca., wood painted black, 94×53.3×43.2 cm, photo by A. Zambianchi, courtesy Cortesi Gallery London – Lugano.

Cortesi Gallery, Lugano, presents the exhibition Louise Nevelson. Assemblages and Collages, a remarkable selection of 29 works realised by the artist between 1960 and 1980.Louise Nevelson (Kiev, 1899 – New York, 1988) was born in the Ukraine but emigrated to the United States in her early years. She is one of the most influential figures of the 20th century, an epoch that she lived to see almost in its entirety.

Nevelson turned to collages from the mid-50s and these works clearly show the influence of Cubism, which she encountered during research trips in Europe. Realised on wooden or paper boards and in different dimensions, the collages reveal the artist’s attention to perspective, chromaticism, spontaneity of execution and compositional balance. To this first kind of artistic production, Nevelson added assemblages: in both cases, the works are realised by collecting scrape wood and metals bits found in the streets of New York.

Reclaimed materials that, as such, tell a story, have a past that Louise Nevelson takes into account when re-assembling the pieces. In her sculptures, we recognise everyday objects – from table and chair legs, to balustrade and more – that the artist re-uses with a sensibility that wavers between New Dada and Abstractionism, but that also looks back at pre-Columbian and Mesoamerican sculpture she became fascinated with during a trip to Mexico in 1950. However, despite these many references, the final result is extraordinarily original, making it impossible to be pigeonholed.

For assemblages, the artist preferred monochrome – in particular, black and gold – as evident in the works on show at Cortesi Gallery. Using a solid colour, the dimension of the objects is flattened while the attention placed on the game of lights and shadows generated by the surfaces, enhancing their evocative aspects. The exhibition is organised in collaboration with Fondazione Marconi (Milan) and is accompanied by a catalogue produced by Mousse Publishing, which includes a critical essay by curator Bruno Corà.

Leah Berliawsky, known as Louise Nevelson (Pereyaslav-Kiev, 1899 – New York, 1988), was born near Kiev to a Jewish family and was forced to emigrate in 1905 to the United States because of anti-Semitic laws enacted in her country a few years earlier. She grew up in Rockland, Maine, then moved to New York, returning to Europe years later to study with Hans Hoffman. On her return to the United States, she worked first as an assistant to Diego Rivera and later as an art instructor in the Works Progress Administration. In 1941, her first solo exhibition was held, and in 1946, she was first invited to participate in the annual exhibition at the Whitney Museum, in which she took part several times.

Her numerous exhibitions include her participation at the Venice Biennale in 1962, when she represented the United States. She also exhibited at the Jewish Museum, New York (1965, 2007); the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York (1967, 1970, 1980, 1987, 1998); the Civic Gallery of Modern Art, Turin (1969); Moderna Museet, Stockholm (1973); Walker Art Center, Minneapolis (1973); National Gallery of Modern Art, Rome (1976); Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York (1986); Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Rome (1994); Centre national d’art et de culture Georges Pompidou, Paris (1997); Rome Foundation Museum, Rome (2013) and Mediterranean Foundation in Catania (2013–2014). With the collective, Sixteen Americans, at the Museum of Modern Art, New York (1959–60); The Art of Assemblage, The Museum of Modern Art, New York (1961); the Carnegie International (1958, 1961, 1964, 1970); and Documenta in Kassel (1964, 1968).

Many of her works also form part of both private and institutional collections, as well as several public art installations in Chicago, Los Angeles, San Francisco, New York and Philadelphia.

Of Earth, Heaven and Light: Galerie Karsten Greve presents works by Thomas Brummett – Cologne – 19.01.2017-01.04.2017 – 11501



Installation view. © Thomas Brummett, Courtesy Galerie Karsten Greve.

Thomas Brummett is an artist who is on a journey that follows two intertwined paths. Thoughtful and patient, he is on a quest to discover the essence of the natural world by focusing on the immediate before him—a twig, a fleeing light beam. He is also an explorer of the medium of photography, experimenting with the myriad ways of making an image with light and marks on the surface of light sensitive paper. All Brummett’s work is from his life-long series Rethinking the Natural.Born in Colorado in 1955, Brummett matured with an appreciation of arid deserts and soaring mountains. He was educated in ceramics and photography at the Colorado State University (BFA, 1979) and the Cranbrook Academy of Art in Michigan, (MFA, 1982), after which he settled in Philadelphia and had a daughter. Raised in a Christian (Episcopalian) family that includes several members of the clergy, after reaching adulthood and traveling to India and Asia, Brummett found that the journey described in Western Abrahamic religions had lost its meaning for him, and he was drawn to Eastern Taoist/Buddhist theology. Rather than embarking on a pilgrimage of transcendence to a Deity who resides above and independent from the universe, Brummett found himself following Eastern monastic traditions that embark on a journey of immanence—intense observation of the world at hand. Such intense focus on the immediate resonates with the scientific method, and thus it is not surprising that Taoist/Buddhist thought permeates modern science and mathematics, as in the writings of Austrian logician Ludwig Wittgenstein who wrote: “the place I must get to is the place where I already am” (Culture and Value, 1930). This mix of meditative practices and modern science is a thread running through Brummett’s art.

The parallel paths of the artist’s journey are clearly manifest in the series Infinities and Light Projections. In the series Light Projections the artist controlled the “circles of confusion” a lens can produce when out of focus. A “circle of confusion” is a term in optics for pinpoints of light (commonly known as bokeh [from the Japanese for “blur”]), which is an artifact of the lens that the artist describes as “an optical effect a lens produces with out of focus.” Brummett’s method of controlling and making images out of these so-called “circles of confusion” has never been done in the history of photography. According to the artist, the prints in this series “represent the physical manifestation of Light = The Infinite.” As the artist has stated: “The Light Projections for me are the perfect visual symbol of the Infinite. All light is a part of the natural world. Light is the very basis of the natural world and all life and energy. [In this series] I was not shifting my attention away from the natural world but to its very essence. I was taking the natural world down to its purest form—Light.” With these words, Brummett is following in the footsteps of mystics throughout the ages who have associated light with infinity, and given these concepts divine associations. Notice that Brummett capitalizes “Light” and “the Infinite”, thus personifying/deifying them in the classical Greek tradition of “the Good” “the Just” and “the Triangle” which were, according to Plato, all divine. This association of light, infinity and divinity took deep root in Western thought.

An amateur astronomer can easily arrange to photograph through a ground-based telescope, but a non-scientist cannot book time on a telescope that orbits above earth’s atmosphere. So for photographs of outer space, Brummett used images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope that NASA makes available to the public. Starting with one of these recordings of light—a transatmospheric look back in time—the artist worked like a printmaker and manipulated the image, desaturating the hue and layering the image with other patterns, all of which he has photographed from nature (Infinities [of Earth and Heaven] series 2013-16). The layers include images of stars, magnolia trees, a recording of snowflakes hitting a scanner, as well as real dust and mold from the artist’s studio. In these images Brummett describes his intention as to recreate William Blake’s idea of what the world would look like to all of us: “If the doors of perception were cleansed everything would appear to man as it is, Infinite” (The Marriage of Heaven and Hell, 1793).

Borrowing a term from thermodynamics, the artist calls his darkroom development process “entropic” (transfer of energy): “I print the image down to black and then resurrect it with bleaches, brushes and a redevelopment process. Each image is unique because the process is so naturally random.

The bleaches attack the metal in the paper literally eating it away.” The process is entropic because “the silver atoms move from a very ordered state to a chaotic state of dissolution or fragmentation, which give me a very beautiful line or edge.”

(Excerpts from a text by Lynn Gamwell, 2016)

Thomas Brummett was born in 1955 in Colorado. He studied photography at Colorado State University and the Cranbrook Academy of Art in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, and has worked as a freelance photographer since 1983. From 1985 to 1990 he also taught photography at the University of Arts in Philadelphia. His works are included in numerous public collections, including the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, and the Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janiero, Brazil. Brummett was honoured with many awards for his photographic work. In addition to other prizes, he received the International Photography Award in 2004, 2009 and 2012 and in 2014 he was granted the Sony World Photography Award. Thomas Brummett lives and works in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Louise Bourgeois and Yayoi Kusama united for exhibition at Sotheby’s S/2 Gallery – London – 23.02.2017-13.04.2017 – 11500



‘Traumata’ will bring together important sculptures, paintings, prints and works on paper that explore the intense psychological states that comprise Louise Bourgeois and Yayoi Kusama’s divergent yet parallel careers.

Sotheby’s S|2 Gallery will stage London’s first joint exhibition dedicated to the work of Louise Bourgeois (1911– 2010) and Yayoi Kusama (born 1929). Opening on 23 February, Traumata: Bourgeois/Kusama will bring together defining works from important private collections and art foundations to reveal how these legendary artists laid bare their own psychological traumas to open up new territories for female artistic expression.Japan-born Kusama, best known for her obsessive, densely patterned polka-dot paintings and mirrored installations, has attracted more visitors to her exhibitions around the world than any other artist in recent years. French-born Bourgeois, known for creating unflinchingly honest, autobiographical works which explore sexuality, motherhood and the darkest depths of her own psychology, is credited with inspiring and empowering a wave of contemporary female artists.

Burdened by childhood trauma and given to intense psychological states, for both Louise Bourgeois and Yayoi Kusama art was always the way to salvation. “Art is restoration”, said Bourgeois, “the idea is to repair the damages that are inflicted in life”. Throughout her career, Bourgeois created art that dealt with the emotions resulting from the discovery of her domineering father’s affair with her live-in tutor, all while her knowing mother turned a blind eye. Kusama – born in 1929 to a prosperous family in Matsumoto, Japan – similarly creates work heavily shaped by childhood experience. Her mother’s contempt of a husband who was prone to long absences and serial womanising, and her vehement and violent opposition to Kusama’s wish to become an artist exacerbated her nascent hallucinosis: a psychological condition that would become the lifelong well-spring for her obsessive-compulsive work. “By translating hallucinations and fear of hallucinations into paintings,” said Kusama, “I have been trying to cure my disease”. In an attempt to manage these psychological difficulties, Kusama has been a voluntary resident in Seiwa Hospital for the Mentally Ill in Tokyo since 1977. Though driven by intensely personal pathologies, both artists have used their work as a platform to explore wider socio-political issues concerning gender, sexuality, embodiment and subjectivity; issues that continue to resonate strongly today

‘Traumata’ will bring together important sculptures, paintings, prints and works on paper that explore the intense psychological states that comprise Louise Bourgeois and Yayoi Kusama’s divergent yet parallel careers. Organised around four main themes, ‘Good Mother/Bad Mother’, ‘Exile/Dislocation’, ‘Sexuality/War’ and ‘Memory/Melancholia’, the exhibition will span the entirety of the artists’ careers, from rarely seen paintings created by Kusama for her first exhibitions in Japan, to now-iconic sculptures, such as Louise Bourgeois’ Spider.

Exhibition of new works on canvas and photo emulsion paper by Gordon Moore at Anita Rogers Gallery – New York – 15.02.2017-01.04.2017 – 11499



Anita Rogers Gallery presents an exhibition of new works on canvas and photo emulsion paper by the American painter, Gordon Moore. The exhibition is on view February 15 – April 1, 2017 at 77 Mercer Street #2N, New York, NY.In this exhibition Moore’s current work continues an interest in the dialogue he has developed over the past decade between the spontaneous flow of painterly liquids and the specific structural framework of his abstract configurations. The esoteric nature of abstraction offers an unlimited potential for invention. Using photo-emulsion paper as a ground for drawing, Moore embraces and encourages the imperfections inherent in the interaction between developer and emulsion. This in turn nurtures Moore’s large scale works on canvas which explore a similar approach to depth, dimension, balance and asymmetry. Moore’s pieces are exercises in asymmetrical equilibrium that challenge the viewers’ natural perceptions. The collection of works on view here are thoughtful meditations on connections and alignments – on the interaction between flatness and depth, deliberation and spontaneity, the real world and the painted world and finally between abstraction and figuration.

Born in Cherokee, IA, Moore received his undergraduate degree from the University of Washington, Seattle in 1970 and then went on to receive his MFA from Yale University in 1972. He has received numerous awards and grants including the National Endowment for the Arts-Visual Artists Fellowship, the Louis Comfort Tiffany Foundation Award in Painting, the Adolph and Ester Gottlieb Foundation Award in Painting, the Academy Award in Art from the American Academy of Arts and Letters, Pollock Krasner Foundation Grant and the New York Foundation for the Arts Fellowship. Moore’s work can be seen in the collections of the Museum of Fine Arts (Boston, MA), Yale University Art Gallery (CT), Baltimore Museum of Art (MD), General Electric Corporation (OH), the Krannert Art Museum (IL) and Kinkead Pavilion (IL).

Morgan Lehman Gallery exhibits new large-scale oil paintings by Jeff Perrott – New York -26.02.2017-25.03.2017 – 11498


Jeff Perrott, RW182 (Too Dark to See Tomorrow), 2015. Oil on canvas

Morgan Lehman Gallery is presenting new large-scale oil paintings by Jeff Perrott. This will be the artist’s fifth solo exhibition with the gallery.Over the years, Perrott has committed himself to exploring the possibilities of abstraction, interrogating its core tenets and material processes to reveal new and interesting ways of seeing. The works on view are part of an ongoing project that Perrott refers to as “Random Walks.” He explains, “the Random Walks question what I call the ‘will to power’ or ‘will to domination’ of abstract painting by redirecting my hand through the operation of chance: by forcing a negotiation with contingency. At the same time, as chance is choice, the process pushes through its own blindness to what I think of as a different sort of power, not so motivated by domination, but by curiosity with and participation in the thrownness of the situation.”

In this exhibition, richly textured black grounds take on prominent pictorial weight, thus subverting the traditional figure-ground relationship. Each painting presents a ground that is functionally chameleonic: simultaneously sheer depth, blind terrain, and a sort of embodied uncertainty. As one’s eyes adjust to close-value chromatic shifts on the surface of the paintings, high contrast marks give way to more complex, dark, sinewy tangles, with portions of the wandering lines receding into inky black.

The play among the hidden and revealed, the manifest and the underlying, when coupled with Perrott’s chance-based painterly operation, suggests the uncertain unfoldment of the everyday as well as an ostensibly darker contingency undergirding what is seen. Even within disappearance, the lines of color, and the paintings themselves, continue, joining themselves with that very uncertainty, invoking also: possibility.

Jeff Perrott earned his BA from Williams College, and his MFA from Yale School of Art (New Haven, CT). Perrott has exhibited at the Boston Center for the Arts (MA), Barbara Krakow Gallery (Boston, MA), Morgan Lehman Gallery (New York, NY), and LaMontagne Gallery (Boston, MA). He is the winner of the Eben Demerest Fellowship, and a nominee for the Foster Prize from the Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston. His work is featured in both corporate and museum collections such as the Wadsworth Atheneum (Hartford, CT); Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; deCordova Sculpture Park and Museum (Lincoln, MA); the Whitney Museum of Art prints collection; Wellington Management; the Digitas Corporation; and KPFG San Francisco.

Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac presents its fifth solo exhibition of works by artist Marc Brandenburg – Salzburg – 28.01.2017-31.03.2017 -11496



Marc Brandenburg, Untitled (detail), 2016, Graphite on paper Courtesy Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac London·Paris·Salzburg © Marc Brandenburg. Photo: Jens Ziehe.

Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac is holding its fifth solo exhibition of works by artist Marc Brandenburg, resident in Berlin. Entitled Alpha St, the exhibition comprises 24 drawings from a new series of works based on historical photographs of traditional costumes and on snapshots of young people in school uniforms.”The drawings of women enveloped in their clothes and immobilised like ghostly figures from another age show a fascination for superficial detail. The portrait drawings are based on photographs of women in traditional costumes taken in the 1940s that have been inverted and alienated by the artist through processes of copying and manipulating. Brandenburg emphasises the averted gaze and frozen gestures of the featured women, making their faces and bodies appear immobile, like those of wooden dolls.

The patterns of the elaborate handmade lace and embroidery, resembling decorative armour, are transposed into the social structures of a present time: that of schoolgirls’ uniforms. The groups of girls – teenagers chatting amongst themselves, unaware of the spectator’s gaze – emerge dimly from a white haze, like scenic souvenir pictures from a distant past. These are modelled on Brandenburg’s own photographs, snapshots taken during a trip to New Zealand and Australia.

The subjects, shown here presumably as objects or textures of a social environment, are exclusively female. The striking feature is the sign Alpha Street, isolated from its context and thus pointing nowhere. A narration takes shape, with the viewer in the role of the spectator of a dreamlike, surreal sequence – at once detached, excluded and ensnared in a crippling perpetuity between past and future” (Anna Vetter).

At first glance, Brandenburg’s almost spectrally delicate pencil drawings seem like negatives of snapshots of a bizarre parallel world. His realistic scenes with public demonstrators, flagwaving football fans, clowns and fairgrounds, his portraits of friends and relatives, his water fountains and monumental Christmas decorations have an unsettlingly threatening effect. The silvery, shiny materiality of the graphite surfaces is combined with finely-nuanced, gently tapering contours. Everything is bathed in a blaze of unreal light. The motifs on the white paper seem deprived of their original peaceful quality. The way he models the surface structures immerses the images from everyday life “in an acid bath of abstraction” (Harald Fricke).

Brandenburg “examines in drawing the masks and symbols of a ruthless event culture: the ritual outfits of football fans, the chubby bodies of fairground figures and mascots, the slogans and symbols on pennants, banners and billboards” (Oliver Koerner von Gustorf). He draws mostly from his own photographs, which attempt to capture the moment of veering from one motif to another. His concern is what lies between them: “It’s like a cut in film, or like individual stills that make up a film – it’s like trying to depict an aura”, Brandenburg once explained in an interview.

In his speech at the 2005 award ceremony of the prestigious Karl Ströher Prize to Marc Brandenburg in the Frankfurt Museum of Modern Art, writer Ulf Poschardt remarked that although Brandenburg stands in the tradition of pop art and its delight in surface appearance, he still combines the aspects of realism and transfiguration in a contemporary manner. He added that “it was not so much the media world and its images that Brandenburg captured, but rather moments of experienced intensity. A timid viewer (and aren’t we all, when confronted with delicate, intimate drawings?) has the feeling that he is looking at the photo negatives of a deeply-felt life. The sheer technical skill and refinement of Marc Brandenburg’s work has perpetuated the snapshot. The moment is endowed with permanence. The shock of the moment has been sketched into permanency.” There is an evident affinity with the 19th-century genre and history portraitist Adolf von Menzel, whom Brandenburg greatly admires. Also Berlin protagonists of the New Objectivity – such as Otto Dix and George Grosz – may be seen as precursors of Brandenburg.

Brandenburg’s iconography often draws on scenes showing loss of control and extreme physicality. In 2008 Diedrich Diederichsen, writing about Brandenburg’s aesthetics of excess, said that “the visual grammar of excess is essentially that of an accelerated or accelerating change-over of images which are in themselves clearly contoured. Their smallest element is the stroboscopic flash, alternately bright and darkened images where the bright parts produce a sequence of their own; this is at once excessively bright, leaping out aggressively at the viewer, yet still kept at a distance by the dark interruptions, the effect of proximity thus being mitigated. Brandenburg’s drawings endow this experience of the world with intensity and permanence.”

Marc Brandenburg, born in Berlin in 1965, grew up in Germany and Texas, USA. He gained a wide reputation during the 1990s with his distinctive pencil drawings. Today, his works are represented in collections worldwide, including the MoMA/New York, Deutsche Bank, Kupferstichkabinett/Berlin, Kunsthalle/Hamburg, Harlem Studio Museum/New York, Kupferstichkabinett/Dresden, Städtische Galerie/Wolfsburg and Museum Moderner Kunst/Frankfurt, and have been exhibited in international museums. In recent years, Kunsthaus/Stade (2015), Städtische Galerie/Wolfsburg (2012), Kunsthalle/Hamburg (2011) and Denver Art Museum (2010) have devoted major solo exhibitions to his work.

Exhibition of new shaped canvas works by Blair Thurman on view at Gagosian, Geneva – 25.01.2017-31.03.2017 – 11495


Blair Thurman
And now, a bubble burst, And now, a world, 2017
Acrylic on canvas on wood
72 1/2 × 54 × 5 inches (184.2 × 137.2 × 12.7 cm)
© Blair ThurmanPhoto by Rob McKeever

Gagosian is presenting new shaped canvas works by Blair Thurman. This is his first exhibition with the gallery in Switzerland.

Thurman’s influences range from Pop art and Minimalism to relics from childhood, popular music, and 1970s cinema. His standardized forms, pulled from slot-car racetracks, architectural frameworks, and found shapes from daily life take on a nostalgic register, the fascinations of boyhood working to render abstract geometries more idiosyncratic and accessible. Thurman transposes the formal details of these everyday objects into the subliminal realm of abstraction.

Repeating previously used motifs and introducing new ones, Thurman produces dimensional paintings recalling the pleasures of the road or the silver screen of his childhood era. He enlarges the concave slots of model racetracks and paints them in bold colors that recall the Spectraflame paint and decals of Hot Wheels cars. These recurring references, however, also begin to resemble unrelated forms, to which he alludes in his titles—including Shades of Pemberton (2016), Nite Owl (2016), and Hippie Car Spin-Out #3 (2017). Nite Owl, a new motif born from the abstracted form of a hubcap, which evolved from one of the “mask” works, is comprised of both flat and curved planes, its clean angles protruding from the wall. With panels in orange, white, and black, it simultaneously evokes Constructivist painting and the graphics of racing, while its title and visible brushstrokes encourage imagining the two circles on either side as the wise bird’s eyes. Thurman’s eccentric references and private jokes coincide with his serious motivation to give painting an inside edge.

Thurman allows feeling to pervade objectivity. Artist Steven Parrino called him a “Pop Sensitive.” Influenced by Parrino, as well as Frank Stella, Andy Warhol, and Nam June Paik, he participates in a dialogue about the limits of image-making by seeking out subjects that have been left out of art history, and presenting them through formal techniques of repetition, light, and contour. His works are static, yet their slopes and junctures brim with latent energy, causing the eyes to move quickly around them—the active gaze standing in for absent racing cars. Thurman refers to the style and significance of his work as its “signature-content” as he investigates the intersection between our cultural environment and our imagined fantasies, examining the memory and poetry embedded in the very act of looking.

Blair Thurman was born in 1961 in New Orleans, Louisiana, and currently lives and works in New York. He received his B.F.A. from the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, Canada, and his M.F.A. from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. His work is featured in the collections of the Centre national des arts plastiques, Paris; Fonds régional d’art contemporain, France; and the Syz Collection, Switzerland. Recent solo exhibitions include Le Magasin—Centre National d’Art Contemporain, France (2014); and “Honeybadgers,” Oklahoma City Museum of Art, Oklahoma (2015). Thurman’s work was included in the 46th Biennale di Venezia in 1995.


Lehmann Maupin presents first solo presentation of Kim Guiline’s work in the United States – New York – 16.02.2017-25.03.2017 – 11494


Kim Guiline, Untitled, 1967. Oil on canvas, 38.19 x 51.18 inches 97 x 130 cm. Courtesy the artist, Lehmann Maupin, New York and Hong Kong, and Gallery Hyundai, Seoul. Photo: Max Yawney.

Lehmann Maupin announces the gallery’s inaugural exhibition for Kim Guiline, the first solo presentation of his work in the United States. The lauded Korean artist is one of the foundational members of the Dansaekhwa movement that emerged in South Korea during the 1970s. The exhibition will feature a survey of work that includes rarely shown paintings from the 1960s, his well-known black and white paintings from the 1970s, and bright monochrome paintings from the 1980s-2000s.

Dansaekhwa translates to “monochromatic painting,” and is also identified by experimental modes of paint application—scraping or pushing of pigments through canvas—that aimed to break away from classical approaches to art making. The resulting paintings were considered to be avant-garde, both aesthetically and in their criticism of political and art establishments. Kim Guiline’s paintings thus can be seen as a reflection of the sociopolitical landscape of Korea during the 1970s, a period of authoritarian rule and government surveillance. In contrast to propagandistic art praising the government, Kim Guiline produced abstract paintings that connected Korean heritage to the natural environment, often expressing a spiritual relationship to color and materiality.

In this exhibition, viewers are invited to consider the nuances of Kim Guiline’s work that firmly place him among his Dansaekhwa contemporaries while also delineating his improvisations upon the methodologies of this group. His paintings from the 1960s were inspired by his childhood dreams and demonstrated an interest in geometry and color-field abstraction. In the 1970s, he was working with a more restrained palette in order to explore the numerous narrative and formal possibilities of black and white pigments. During the 1980s, his work developed to include small repetitive squares and egg-shaped dots that became signature gestures in his monochrome canvases. By the 1990s, Kim Guiline was working primarily with five colors: black, blue, red, yellow, and green, allowing him to prioritize surface, texture, and brushwork. Like many Dansaekhwa artists, Kim Guiline is interested in exploring the possible spiritual associations of color.

Contrary to his peers who frequently use white, Kim Guiline often paints with black. Though the color typically has ominous associations, for Kim Guiline, it is representative of creation, renewal, and beginning.

As a whole, Kim Guiline’s practice can be identified by his dedication to the medium of oil paint and the accentuation of color and flatness across all periods of his work. To achieve a matte surface, the artist perfected a technique of using newspaper to absorb the excess oils from the paint. Equally unique is his treatment of layering individual colors on the canvas, rather than pre-mixing his pigments. The accumulation of these layers, upwards of 30 in a single painting, is what achieves the intensity and depth of color that reverberates in his paintings, despite the restrictive palette. Repeated, overlapping marks atop this layered, matte surface draw attention to the artist’s handling of material and invite the viewer to consider the philosophical implications behind the thick accumulation of paint. Kim Guiline’s works present a series of metaphorical propositions about the act and subject of painting that invite us to consider the meaning of the abstract image created by layering oil paint.

Kim Guiline (b. 1936, Gowon, Korea; lives and works in Paris) graduated from Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, South Korea in 1960; Dijon University, France in 1965; École and Nationale des Beaux-Arts, Paris in 1968; and received his BFA from École Nationale Supérieure des Arts Décoratifs, Paris in 1971. His work has been featured in numerous international exhibitions and biennials including Color Pool, Gyeonggi Museum of Modern Art, Ansan, South Korea (2015); Inhabiting the World, Busan Biennale, Busan, South Korea (2014); Scenes vs Scenes, Buk Seoul Museum of Art, Seoul, South Korea (2013); Dansaekhwa: Korean Monochrome Painting, National Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, Gwacheon, South Korea (2012); Qui is Full, Daegu Art Museum, Daegu, South Korea (2011); Korean Abstract Art 1958-2008, Seoul Museum of Art, Seoul, South Korea (2008); and The Opening Exhibition, Seoul National University Museum MoA, Seoul, South Korea (2006). His work is held in numerous public and private collections including Busan Museum of Art, Busan, South Korea; Daegu Art Museum, Daegu, South Korea; National Museum of Contemporary Art, Gwacheon, South Korea; and the Seoul Museum of Art, Seoul, South Korea.


Ayyam Gallery presents a collective exhibition that highlights contemporary painters from the Middle East – Beirut – 08.02.2017-31.03.2017 – 11493



Samia Halaby , Scattering Yellow, 2013, acrylic on linen canvas, 145 x 145 cm.

Ayyam Gallery Beirut is presenting Painting Across Generations , a collective exhibition that highlights contemporary painters from the Middle East who are recognised as international trendsetters.Featuring works by Samia Halaby, Safwan Dahoul, Thaier Helal, Tammam Azzam, and Afshin Pirhashemi, Painting Across Generations showcases some of the recent developments in art that are steering a new wave of painting in the Arab world and Iran. This diverse selection of artists represents a multigenerational lineage of ongoing experimentation in the region.

A series of 2013 paintings by pioneering abstract painter Samia Halaby, for example, demonstrates how colourist compositions can recreate the sensations of nature. Using abstraction as a means of describing the interplays of light, tones, and shapes of foliage, or the movement, density, and reflectivity of water, Halaby encourages the viewer to recall similar environments, to rely on memory and experiential experience in order to complete the picture. Thaier Helal also uses the formalism of painting to capture the physical characteristics of natural settings and the evolution of organic forms, alluding to the regenerative power of water in works that depict the Assi River in Syria. By incorporating rocks, leaves, and sand, Helal builds the textures of waterways that have survived the rise and fall of civilizations over centuries, serving as an essential resource for communities that must start anew.

Selected from his ongoing Storeys series, Tammam Azzam’s untitled work places an emphasis on the formal properties of painting in order to approximate the devastation of the Syrian war as he documents the human toll of the conflict. After a two-year hiatus due to forced migration, Azzam returned to using the medium with a new approach that emphasises how painting can serve as a form of art intervention. His recent large-scale works make Syria’s ruin inescapable with imposing compositions and tactile surfaces that appear on the brink of collapse.

Safwan Dahoul represents the Syrian conflict through allegorical representations in his ongoing Dream series, a body of work that has evolved over the span of three decades. The most recent iteration of the series demonstrates how Dahoul uses colour, or the absence of it, and vacant space to further emphasise the affective details of his recurring protagonist. In Dream 107 (2015) Dahoul’s alienated heroine wades through a sea submerged in fog as a small paper boat—an evocation of the current refugee crisis—floats in the foreground. The artist’s figure is rendered with attributes that are taken from the history of visual culture, such as a Pharaonic eye and the hands of saints in Flemish icon paintings. These details are given new meaning in Dahoul’s work, as our increasingly connected world is essentially described as shattered and beyond repair.

Afshin Pirhashemi uses allegory and historical references to comment on the status of women in his native Iran. In Vitruvian Woman (2015) a female figure is painted as the ideal of man as she defiantly stares at the viewer. Two additional women are shown behind her in straight jackets, attempting to break free from the physical restraints. The artist’s central character is depicted with a mix of realism and expressionism, as Pirhashemi represents a moment of transcendence with dramatic lines and fluid brushwork.

Stealing Space: Annely Juda Fine Art presents exhibition by Richard Wilson – London – 26.01.2017-25.03.2017 – 11491


Richard Wilson, Block of Dering, 2017. Wood, 353 x 250 x 268 cm. © Richard Wilson. Courtesy Annely Juda Fine Art.
Annely Juda Fine Art presents an exhibition by Richard Wilson entitled Stealing Space. The exhibition is the artist’s first at the gallery and his first solo show in London since unveiling his major site-specific work, Slipstream, at Heathrow Airport’s Terminal 2. The exhibition features four new works, two of which are in direct response to the gallery’s internal and external architecture.
Works in this exhibition dominate the gallery’s space and stand, in places, above the height of the architectural beams. In the main room, Wilson has created a sculpture of a slice of the negative space or “space between” the hallway and staircase leading to the gallery’s main entrance. Partial details of a doorway, steps or a bannister in negative form are visible on the sculpture which sits straight on the ground at a tilted angle, offering a reassessment of the perhaps completely unnoticed yet familiar surroundings the viewer has just encountered. Block of Dering, meanwhile, takes the façade of the gallery building at 23 Dering Street and reconfigures it into a near-cube. Even the gallery’s signage can be made out in this sculpture which presents the local architecture in an entirely new way.
In the second room, a sculpture delineates the “space between” an area of Wilson’s home in South East London whilst Blocka Flats takes a piece of household furniture reconfigured into a form reminiscent of an urban landscape on a micro scale, the very same landscape which Wilson refers to in other works on a 1:1 scale. Two preparatory sketches for each work hang near their sculptural counterparts, whilst in the final room, Wilson shows maquettes of past works and those not yet realised.
Wilson’s work offers a new perspective on everyday spaces, forcing us to reevaluate our surroundings and to look again. Past works slice through and upturn otherwise recognisable objects in, for example, Slice of Reality 2000, a boat sliced to its living quarters only and standing on the bank of the River Thames. Set North for Japan (74 °33′ 2″) 2000, meanwhile, is a full scale reconstruction of the artist’s London terraced house reduced to a metal frame and partially submerged into the ground in Japan, maintaining its exact original perpendicular and horizontal orientation to true North that it had in London. Firmly rooted in the context of the urban landscape, Wilson’s work takes the familiar and forms new and unusual experiences. For this exhibition, the gallery’s architecture and that of Wilson’s own domestic space is turned inside out and wrapped around itself. The viewer is disorientated as the external is made internal and the often overlooked parts of the buildings become central to our focus.
Richard Wilson is a world-renowned British artist whose architectural interventions have won him acclaim throughout his career. Wilson rose to prominence in 1987 when his installation, 20:50 – consisting of a room filled to waist height with reflective sump oil – was shown at Matt’s Gallery in London and purchased by The Saatchi Gallery. Wilson has gone on to create a series of predominantly site-specific works, most recently Slipstream (2014), which stands at an impressive 78 meters at Heathrow Airport’s Terminal 2. Wilson was appointed visiting research professor at the University of East London in 2004, elected as a member of the Royal Academy in 2006 and in 2008 was awarded an honorary doctorate at the University of Middlesex. He has created permanent and temporary works at prominent locations worldwide and his works have been shown at institutions such as The Serpentine Gallery, London; Saatchi Gallery, London; The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles; National Gallery of Australia, Canberra and Museu d’Art Contemporani, Barcelona.

DAM Gallery presents a selection of works from different periods of Vera Molnar’s career – Berlin – 21.01.2017-25.03.2017 – 11490



Vera Molnar’s work has been continuously shown in major museums.
Vera Molnar, who turned ninety-three early in January, has never really been eager to gain acceptance on the art market. I remember when visiting her in 2014 to inform her that she had won a lifetime award, she was more than surprised. Molnar was already in her sixties when she started selling her work regularly. Despite her artist friends like Francois Morellet, Victor Vaserely and Max Bill, she perceived her art mainly as experimental research. It developed into a dialogue between the computer and her oeuvre, which continues to the present. The more conceptual series, which lead to deconstruction or dissolution of forms, were mainly created in the 1970s to the 1990s. After that installations and paintings again gained importance. Over all this years she kept a sketch book which contains a wide range of unrealized treasures to which we can look forward.

Vera Molnar’s work has been continuously shown in major museums, most recently at the Museum Ludwig, Budapest; the Museum Haus Konstruktiv, Zürich; and Kunstmuseum, Stuttgart among others. In 2017 we look forward to exhibitions at the Museum of Modern Art, Warsaw as well as an exhibition during the Venice Biennale.DAM Gallery presents a selection of new pieces for Berlin from different periods from 1974 to present time.

“I use a computer to combine the forms because I hope that the assistance of this tool will permit me to go beyond the bounds of learning, cultural heritage, environment; in short: of the social thing, which we must consider to be our second nature. Because of its huge capacity for combination, the computer permits systematic investigation of the field of possibilities in the visual world, helping the painter to clear his brain of mental/cultural “ready-mades” and in enabling him to produce combinations of forms never seen before, either in nature, or in museums, to create unimaginable images.” –Vera Molnar, 1980